The Price of Exclusion: Disability and Education Looking Ahead: Visual Impairment and School Eye Health Programs
Quentin Wodon, Chata Male, Ada Nayihouba, and Elizabeth Smith
USAID and the Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building at the World Bank.
The Price of Exclusion: Disability and Education - The World Bank Group
This Policy Note is part of a series on The Price of Exclusion: Disability and Education prepared as part of a broader work program on children with disabilities that benefited from funding from USAID and from the Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building at the World Bank.
The series documents gaps in education outcomes between children with and without disabilities. It also showcases examples of programs and policies and lessons from the literature on how to improve inclusion in education systems.
The study was conducted among 21 countries in Africa and finds that after controlling for other factors affecting educational outcomes, children with visual impairment are on average five to seven percentage points less likely to ever enroll in school, complete their primary education, and be literate than children without disabilities.
Implementing school eye health programs at scale should be a priority for ensuring that education systems are inclusive.
Children with uncorrected visual impairment are, on average across countries, about 4 percentage points less likely to ever start school, complete primary education, and be literate.
In sub-Saharan African countries, after controlling for other factors affecting educational outcomes, the average reductions at the margin for children with visual impairment in the probabilities of ever enrolling in school, completing primary schooling, and being literate are estimated at 5.0 points, 5.0 points, and 6.1 points respectively.
The loss associated with difficulty seeing clearly is at up to two percent of mean performance. This is larger than the effects of other important variables included in the regression analysis.
Children with visual impairment who lack access to correction tend to perform less well on standardized student assessments when they are in school.